Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic and intractable disease that is widely present in the general population. It causes painful behavior and even mood changes such as anxiety and depression by altering the metabolism of substances. However, there have been limited metabolomics studies conducted in relation to neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, the effects of NP on metabolites in serum and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated using a non-targeted metabolomics approach detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to uncover differential metabolites and affected metabolic pathways associated with NP. Sixty mice were divided into the following two groups: a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve group and a sham group ( = 30, each). After 7 days of CCI modeling, the metabolite profiles of serum and the DRG were analyzed using GC/LC-MS for both the CCI and sham groups of mice. Multivariate analysis revealed differential metabolites and altered metabolic pathways between the CCI and sham groups. In the CCI group, our findings provided insights into the complex phospholipid, amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolic perturbations of DRG metabolism. In addition, phospholipid metabolic disorders and impaired glucose metabolism were observed in the serum. Moreover, the metabolic differences in the DRG and serum were correlated with each other. The results from this untargeted metabolomics study provide a perspective on the metabolic impact of NP on serum and the DRG.