I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

Papers: 2 Dec 2023 - 8 Dec 2023

2023 Nov 28

ACS Omega




Mechanistic Evaluation of Antiarthritic Effects of Citronellol in CFA-Induced Arthritic Rats.


Dar E, Mobashar A, Shabbir A, Mushtaq MN, Anjum I, Z Gaafar AR, Nafidi HA, Bourhia M


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by systemic inflammation, joint tissue damage, pain, and synovitis. It leads to deformity of joints, disability, and even premature death. Markers of inflammation are highly expressed in synovium fluid and serum of arthritic patients and play an important role in the pathophysiology of RA. These transcription factors promote the fabrication of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. In RA, degradation of synovial cartilage and bone results from stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Citronellol (Ct), a monoterpene alcohol, is found in citrus fruits and essential oils of many aromatic plants. It possesses numerous pharmacological properties such as antioxidant activity and potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Keeping in view the significant anti-inflammatory role of Ct, a trial of 28 days was conducted. Ct was administered orally at three different doses (25, 50, and 100) mg/kg in Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, and the results were compared with piroxicam, chosen as the standard drug. The antiarthritic activity of the compound was evaluated through measurements of arthritic scoring and plethysmometry before and after treatment. The blood biochemical and hematological parameters and histopathological analyses were performed. Additionally, qPCR was conducted to analyze the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-κB, MMP3, IL-6, and IL-4 in the blood. ELISA was performed to evaluate the levels of PGE2. The results demonstrated that Ct showed significant results at all doses, but the highest dose proved to be most significant in terms of decreasing arthritic scoring and paw edema, indicating the antiarthritic potential of Ct. Furthermore, the compound was found to downregulate all the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-κB, MMP3, and IL-6) and upregulate the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4). The levels of PGE2 were also reduced which further supported the antiarthritic effects of Ct and validated it as a potential antiarthritic candidate.