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Papers of the Week

Papers: 1 Jun 2024 - 7 Jun 2024

2024 Jun 15





LL37/FPR2 regulates neutrophil mPTP promoting the development of neutrophil extracellular traps in diabetic retinopathy.


Lou X, Chen H, Chen S, Ji H, He T, Chen H, Zhu R, Le Y, Sang A, Yu Y


Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation. This state may be related to the heightened production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) induced by high glucose (HG). Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL37) is an endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), expressed on neutrophils and facilitating the formation and stabilization of the structure of NETs. In this study, we detected neutrophils cultured under different conditions, the retinal tissue of diabetic mice, and fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (FVM) samples of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) to explore the regulating effect of LL37/FPR2 on neutrophil in the development of NETs during the process of DR. Specifically, HG or NG with LL37 upregulates the expression of FPR2 in neutrophils, induces the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), promotes the increase of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial ROS, and then leads to the rise of NET production, which is mainly manifested by the release of DNA reticular structure and the increased expression of NETs-related markers. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was activated in neutrophils, and the phosphorylation level was enhanced by FPR2 agonists in vitro. In vivo, increased expression of NETs markers was detected in the retina of diabetic mice and in FVM, vitreous fluid, and serum of PDR patients. Transgenic FPR2 deletion led to decreased NETs in the retina of diabetic mice. Furthermore, in vitro, inhibition of the LL37/FPR2/mPTP axis and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway decreased NET production induced by high glucose. These results suggested that FPR2 plays an essential role in regulating the production of NETs induced by HG, thus may be considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets.