is a chronic, complex disease for which there are vast disparities in diagnosis and treatment between sociodemographic groups. Clinical presentation of endometriosis can vary from asymptomatic disease-often identified during (in)fertility consultations-to dysmenorrhea and debilitating pelvic pain. Because of this complexity, delayed diagnosis (mean time to diagnosis is 1.7-3.6 years) and misdiagnosis is common. Early and accurate diagnosis of endometriosis remains a research priority for patient advocates and healthcare providers. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely adopted as a data source in biomedical research. However, they remain a largely untapped source of data for endometriosis research. EHRs capture diverse, real-world patient populations and care trajectories and can be used to learn patterns of underlying risk factors for endometriosis which, in turn, can be used to inform screening guidelines to help clinicians efficiently and effectively recognize and diagnose the disease in all patient populations reducing inequities in care. Here, we provide an overview of the advantages and limitations of using EHR data to study endometriosis. We describe the prevalence of endometriosis observed in diverse populations from multiple healthcare institutions, examples of variables that can be extracted from EHRs to enhance the accuracy of endometriosis prediction, and opportunities to leverage longitudinal EHR data to improve our understanding of long-term health consequences for all patients.