Pain is a very important problem of our existence, and the attempt to understand it is one the oldest challenges in the history of medicine. In this review, we summarize what has been known about pain, its pathophysiology, and neuronal transmission. We focus on orofacial pain and its classification and features, knowing that is sometimes purely subjective and not well defined. We consider the physiology of orofacial pain, evaluating the findings on the main neurotransmitters; in particular, we describe the roles of glutamate as approximately 30-80% of total peripheric neurons associated with the trigeminal ganglia are glutamatergic. Moreover, we describe the important role of oxidative stress and its association with inflammation in the etiogenesis and modulation of pain in orofacial regions. We also explore the warning and protective function of orofacial pain and the possible action of antioxidant molecules, such as melatonin, and the potential influence of nutrition and diet on its pathophysiology. Hopefully, this will provide a solid background for future studies that would allow better treatment of noxious stimuli and for opening new avenues in the management of pain.