Musculoskeletal diseases continue to rise on a global scale, causing significant socioeconomic impact and decreased quality of life. The most common disorders affecting musculoskeletal structures are osteoarthritis and tendinopathies, complicated orthopedic conditions responsible for major pain and debilitation. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) has been a safe, effective, and minimally invasive therapeutic tool for treating these diseases. Several studies from bedside to clinical practice reveal the multiple benefits of HA such as lubrication, anti-inflammation, and stimulation of cellular activity associated with proliferation, differentiation, migration, and secretion of additional molecules. Collectively, these effects have demonstrated positive outcomes that assist in the regeneration of chondral and tendinous tissues which are otherwise destroyed by the predominant catabolic and inflammatory conditions seen in tissue injury. The literature describes the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of HA, their commercial product types, and clinical applications individually, while their interfaces are seldom reported. Our review addresses the frontiers of basic sciences, products, and clinical approaches. It provides physicians with a better understanding of the boundaries between the processes that lead to diseases, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tissue repair, and the benefits of the HA types for a conscientious choice. In addition, it points out the current needs for the treatments.