Migraines are a common medical condition. From a basic science point of view, the central mechanism for migraine and headache is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that cortical excitatory transmission is significantly enhanced in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-a brain region which is critical for pain perception. Biochemical studies found that the phosphorylation levels of both the NMDA receptor GluN2B and AMPA receptor GluA1 were enhanced in ACC of migraine rats. Both the presynaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic responses of AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors were enhanced. Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) was occluded. Furthermore, behavioral anxiety and nociceptive responses were increased, which were reversed by application of AC1 inhibitor NB001 within ACC. Our results provide strong evidence that cortical LTPs contribute to migraine-related pain and anxiety. Drugs that inhibit cortical excitation such as NB001 may serve as potential medicines for treating migraine in the future.