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Papers of the Week

Papers: 15 Jun 2024 - 21 Jun 2024

2024 May 29

Int J Mol Sci




Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Infection in Fibromyalgia: A Narrative Review.


Paroli M, Gioia C, Accapezzato D, Caccavale R


Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain of unknown etiology. The condition is commonly associated with other symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment, and depression. For this reason, FM is also referred to as FM syndrome. The nature of the pain is defined as nociplastic according to the latest international classification and is characterized by altered nervous sensitization both centrally and peripherally. Psychosocial conditions have traditionally been considered critical in the genesis of FM. However, recent studies in animal models and humans have provided new evidence in favor of an inflammatory and/or autoimmune pathogenesis. In support of this hypothesis are epidemiological data of an increased female prevalence, similar to that of autoimmune diseases, and the frequent association with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. In addition, the observation of an increased incidence of this condition during long COVID revived the hypothesis of an infectious pathogenesis. This narrative review will, therefore, discuss the evidence supporting the immune-mediated pathogenesis of FM in light of the most current data available in the literature.