Endometriosis is a common disease of the female reproductive system and has malignant features. Although endometriosis by itself is a benign disease, its erosive growth characteristics lead to severe pelvic pain and female infertility. Unfortunately, several aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis are still unclear. Furthermore, the clinical therapeutic methods are unsatisfactory. The recurrence rate of endometriosis is high. Accumulating evidence suggests that the onset and development of endometriosis are closely related to the abnormal function of the female autoimmune system, especially the function of some immune cells such as the aggregation of neutrophils, abnormal differentiation of macrophages, decreased cytotoxicity of NK cells, and abnormal function of T- and B-cell lines. Therefore, immunotherapy is probably a novel therapeutic strategy for endometriosis besides surgery and hormone therapy. However, information regarding the clinical application of immunotherapy in the treatment of endometriosis is very limited. This article aimed to review the effects of existing immunomodulators on the development of endometriosis, including immune cell regulators and immune factor regulators. These immunomodulators clinically or experimentally inhibit the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis lesions by acting on the immune cells, immune factors, or immune-related signaling pathways. Thus, immunotherapy is probably a novel and effective clinical treatment choice for endometriosis. Experimental studies of the detailed mechanism of immunotherapy and large-scale clinical studies about the effectiveness and safety of this promising therapeutic method are required in the future.