Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a group of internal derangements encompassing dysfunction, displacement, degeneration of the temporomandibular joints and surroundings muscles of mastication, often accompanied by pain. Relationships between TMD and various chemical biomarkers have been examined throughout the years. This paper aims to gather evidence from the literature regarding other biomarkers and presenting them as one systematic review to investigate the potential links between TMD and different biochemical activity. To identify relevant papers, a comprehensive literature search was carried out in MEDLINE/PubMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and a manual search was performed in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. The literature review produced extensive results relating to the biochemical and immunohistochemical markers of TMD. Many enzymes, inflammatory markers, proteoglycans, and hormones were identified and organized in tables, along with a brief description, study design, and conclusion of each study. Through this review, recurring evidence provides confidence in suggesting involvement of certain biomarkers that may be involved in this complex pathogenesis, in addition to pointing to differences in gender prevalence of TMD. However, more organized research on large human samples needs to be conducted to delve deeper into the understanding of how this disease develops and progresses.