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Papers of the Week

Papers: 25 Feb 2023 - 3 Mar 2023

Methodology, Review

In Vitro Studies, Molecular/Cellular, Pharmacology/Drug Development


2023 Feb 04

Int J Mol Sci




Human Brain Organoids in Migraine Research: Pathogenesis and Drug Development.


Gazerani P


Human organoids are small, self-organized, three-dimensional (3D) tissue cultures that have started to revolutionize medical science in terms of understanding disease, testing pharmacologically active compounds, and offering novel ways to treat disease. Organoids of the liver, kidney, intestine, lung, and brain have been developed in recent years. Human brain organoids are used for understanding pathogenesis and investigating therapeutic options for neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neurological disorders. Theoretically, several brain disorders can be modeled with the aid of human brain organoids, and hence the potential exists for understanding migraine pathogenesis and its treatment with the aid of brain organoids. Migraine is considered a brain disorder with neurological and non-neurological abnormalities and symptoms. Both genetic and environmental factors play essential roles in migraine pathogenesis and its clinical manifestations. Several types of migraines are classified, for example, migraines with and without aura, and human brain organoids can be developed from patients with these types of migraines to study genetic factors (e.g., channelopathy in calcium channels) and environmental stressors (e.g., chemical and mechanical). In these models, drug candidates for therapeutic purposes can also be tested. Here, the potential and limitations of human brain organoids for studying migraine pathogenesis and its treatment are communicated to generate motivation and stimulate curiosity for further research. This must, however, be considered alongside the complexity of the concept of brain organoids and the neuroethical aspects of the topic. Interested researchers are invited to join the network for protocol development and testing the hypothesis presented here.