The role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a chaperone, in neuropathic pain after nerve injury has not been systematically surveyed despite its neuroprotective and regeneration-promoting effects. In this study, we found that HSP27 expression in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) mediated nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain behaviors were alleviated by silencing HSP27 in the DRG of a rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Local injection of an HSP27-overexpression construct into the DRG of naïve rats elicited neuropathic pain behaviors. HSP27 interacted with a purinergic receptor, P2X3, and their expression patterns corroborated the induction and reversal of neuropathic pain according to two lines of evidence: colocalization immunohistochemically and immunoprecipitation biochemically. In a cell model cotransfected with HSP27 and P2X3, the degradation rate of P2X3 was reduced in the presence of HSP27. Such an alteration was mediated by reducing P2X3 ubiquitination in SNL rats and was reversed after silencing HSP27 in the DRGs of SNL rats. In summary, the interaction of HSP27 with P2X3 provides a new mechanism of injury-induced neuropathic pain that could serve as an alternative therapeutic target.