Chronic pain presents a therapeutic challenge due to the highly complex interplay of sensory, emotional-affective and cognitive factors. The mechanisms of the transition from acute to chronic pain are not well understood. We hypothesized that neuroimmune mechanisms in the amygdala, a brain region involved in the emotional-affective component of pain and pain modulation, play an important role through high motility group box 1 (Hmgb1), a pro-inflammatory molecule that has been linked to neuroimmune signaling in spinal nociception. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an upregulation of Hmgb1 mRNA in the right but not left central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the chronic stage of a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model of neuropathic pain. Hmgb1 silencing with a stereotaxic injection of siRNA for Hmgb1 into the right CeA of adult male and female rats 1 week after (post-treatment), but not 2 weeks before (pre-treatment) SNL induction decreased mechanical hypersensitivity and emotional-affective responses, but not anxiety-like behaviors, measured 4 weeks after SNL. Immunohistochemical data suggest that neurons are a major source of Hmgb1 in the CeA. Therefore, Hmgb1 in the amygdala may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic neuropathic pain, and the inhibition of Hmgb1 at a subacute time point can mitigate neuropathic pain.