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Papers of the Week

Papers: 29 Apr 2023 - 5 May 2023

Basic Science

Animal Studies, Neurobiology, Pharmacology/Drug Development

Acute Pain, Non-Human Pain

2023 Jul

Biochem Biophys Rep



Histochemical analysis of the biphasic properties of formalin pain-induced behavior.


Hirota I, Koyama Y, Shimada S


The formalin test has been established as a method for evaluating mouse models of pain. Although there have been numerous reports of formalin-pain-induced behavior, few reports of a detailed histochemical analysis of the central nervous system focus on behavioral biphasic properties. To investigate the alternation of spinal neuronal activity with formalin-induced pain, we performed immunofluorescent staining with c-Fos antibodies as neuronal activity markers using acute pain model mice induced by 2% formalin stimulation. As a result, phase-specific expression patterns were observed. In the spinal dorsal horn region, there were many neural activities in the deep region (layers V-VII) in the behavioral first phase and those in the surface region (layers I-III) in the behavioral second phase. Furthermore, we conducted comparative studies using low concentrations (0.25%) of formalin and capsaicin, which did not show distinct behavioral biphasic properties. Neural activity was observed only in the spinal dorsal horn surface region for both stimuli. Our study suggested that the histochemical biphasic nature of formalin-induced pain was attributable to the activity of the deep region of the spinal cord. In the future, treatment strategies focusing on the deep region neuron will lead to the development of effective treatments for allodynia and intractable chronic pain.