I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

Papers: 9 Sep 2023 - 15 Sep 2023


Human Studies, Molecular/Cellular

Inflammation/Inflammatory, Itch

2023 Sep 07

J Allergy Clin Immunol


Global warming and implications for epithelial barrier disruption and respiratory and dermatologic allergic diseases.


Sözener ZÇ, Treffeisen ER, Öztürk BÖ, Schneider LC


Global warming has direct and indirect effects, as well as short- and long-term impacts on the respiratory and skin barriers. Extreme temperature directly affects the airway epithelial barrier by disrupting the structural proteins and by triggering airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. It enhances tidal volume and respiratory rate by affecting the thermoregulatory system, causing specific airway resistance and reflex bronchoconstriction via activation of bronchopulmonary vagal C-fibers and upregulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 and TRPV4. Heat shock proteins are activated under heat stress and contribute to both epithelial barrier dysfunction and airway inflammation. Accordingly, the frequency and severity of allergic rhinitis and asthma have been increasing. Heat activates TRPV3 in keratinocytes causing the secretion of inflammatory mediators and eventually pruritus. Exposure to air pollutants alters the expression of genes that control skin barrier integrity and triggers an immune response, increasing the incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). There is evidence that extreme temperature, heavy rains and floods, air pollution and wildfires increase AD flares. In this narrative review, focused on the last 3 years of literature, we explore the effects of global warming on respiratory and skin barrier and their clinical consequences.