Migraine is a complicated neurological disorder affecting 6% of men and 18% of women worldwide. Various mechanisms, including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, altered mitochondrial function, neurotransmitter disturbances, cortical hyperexcitability, genetic factors, and endocrine system problems, are responsible for migraine. However, these mechanisms have not completely delineated the pathophysiology behind migraine, and they should be further studied. The brain microenvironment comprises neurons, glial cells, and vascular structures with complex interactions. Disruption of the brain microenvironment is the main culprit behind various neurological disorders. Neuron-glia crosstalk contributes to hyperalgesia in migraine. In the brain, microenvironment and related peripheral regulatory circuits, microglia, astrocytes, and satellite cells are necessary for proper function. These are the most important cells that could induce migraine headaches by disturbing the balance of the neurotransmitters in the nervous system. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are the prominent reactions glial cells drive during migraine. Understanding the role of cellular and molecular components of the brain microenvironment on the major neurotransmitters engaged in migraine pathophysiology facilitates the development of new therapeutic approaches with higher effectiveness for migraine headaches. Investigating the role of the brain microenvironment and neuroinflammation in migraine may help decipher its pathophysiology and provide an opportunity to develop novel therapeutic approaches for its management. This review aims to discuss the neuron-glia interactions in the brain microenvironment during migraine and their potential role as a therapeutic target for the treatment of migraine.