Hunner-type interstitial cystitis (HIC) is a rare, chronic inflammatory disease of the urinary bladder with unknown etiology and genetic background. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study of 144 patients with HIC and 41,516 controls of Japanese ancestry. The genetic variant, rs1794275, in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (chromosome 6p21.3) is associated with HIC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; p = 3.4 × 10). The association is confirmed in a replication set of 26 cases and 1,026 controls (p = 0.014). Fine mapping demonstrates the contribution to the disease risk of a completely linked haplotype of three human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQβ1 amino acid positions, 71, 74, and 75 (OR = 1.94; p = 5 × 10) and of HLA-DPβ1 amino acid position 178, which tags HLA-DPB1∗04:02 (OR = 2.35; p = 7.5 × 10). The three HLA-DQβ1 amino acid positions are located together at the peptide binding groove, suggesting their functional importance in antigen presentation. Our study reveals genetic contributions to HIC risk that may be associated with class II MHC molecule antigen presentation.