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Papers: 25 May 2024 - 31 May 2024

2024 May 23

Eur J Pharmacol


Fenofibrate ameliorates nitroglycerin-induced migraine in rats: Role of CGRP/p-CREB/P2X3 and NGF/PKC/ASIC3 signaling pathways.


Ruby HA, Sayed RH, Khattab MA, Sallam NA, Kenway SA


Migraine, a debilitating neurological condition, significantly affects patients’ quality of life. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonist approved for managing dyslipidemia, has shown promise in treating neurological disorders. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of fenofibrate against nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced chronic migraine in rats. Migraine was induced in rats by administering five intermittent doses of NTG (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. Rats were treated with either topiramate (80 mg/kg/day, p.o.), a standard drug, or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) from day 1 to 10. Fenofibrate significantly improved mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, photophobia, and head grooming compared to topiramate. These effects were associated with reduced serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Furthermore, fenofibrate down-regulated c-Fos expression in the medulla and medullary pro-inflammatory cytokine contents. Additionally, fenofibrate attenuated NTG-induced histopathological changes in the trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis. These effects were associated with the inhibition of CGRP/p-CREB/purinergic 2X receptor 3 (P2X3) and nerve growth factor (NGF)/protein kinase C (PKC)/acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) signaling pathways. This study demonstrates that fenofibrate attenuated NTG-induced migraine-like signs in rats. These effects were partially mediated through the inhibition of CGRP/p-CREB/P2X3 and NGF/PKC/ASIC3 signaling pathways. The present study supports the idea that fenofibrate could be an effective candidate for treating migraine headache without significant adverse effects. Future studies should explore its clinical applicability.