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Papers of the Week

Papers: 23 Mar 2024 - 29 Mar 2024

2024 Mar 20





Exploring acetaminophen prodrugs and hybrids: a review.


Kouznetsov VV


This critical review highlights the advances in developing new molecules for treating pain syndrome, an important issue for human health. Acetaminophen (APAP, known as paracetamol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in clinical practice despite their adverse effects. Research is being conducted to develop innovative drugs with improved pharmaceutical properties to mitigate these effects. A more practical way to achieve that is to study well-known and time-tested drugs in their molecular combinations. Accordingly, the present work explores APAP and their combined chemical entities, , prodrugs (soft drugs), codrugs (mutual prodrugs), and hybrids. Due to their molecular structure, APAP prodrugs or codrugs could be considered merged or conjugated hybrids; all these names are very fluid terms. This article proposed a structural classification of these entities to better analyze their advances. So, the following: carrier-linked O-modified APAP, -linked N-modified APAP derivatives (prodrugs), and direct- and spacer-N,O-linked APAP hybrids (codrugs) are the central parts of this review and are examined, especially ester and amide NSAID-APAP molecules. The C-linked APAP and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing APAP hybrids were also briefly discussed. Prime examples of APAP-based drugs such as propacetamol, benorylate, acetaminosalol, nitroparacetamol, and agent JNJ-10450232 weave well into this classification. The proposed classification is the first and original, giving a better understanding of the SAR studies for new pain relievers research and the design development for the analgesic APAP-(or NSAID)-based compounds.