Esketamine, the right-handed optical isomer of racemic ketamine, has recently become widely used for anesthesia and analgesia as a replacement for racemic ketamine. However, there are limited studies comparing the anesthetic and analgesic effects of esketamine and racemic ketamine in mice. This research was conducted to analyze the dose-dependent anesthetic and analgesic efficacy of esketamine in mice and to compare its potency with that of the racemate. We tested the anesthetic effects of different doses of esketamine and compared its potency with that of the racemate using righting reflex tests. Then, the acetic acid-induced pain model and formalin-induced pain model were used to investigate the analgesic effect. Compared with racemic ketamine, an equivalent dose of esketamine at 100 mg/kg was required to induce stable anesthesia. In contrast, 5 mg/kg esketamine was sufficient to provide analgesic effects similar to those of 10 mg/kg ketamine. Together, esketamine had a similar potency to racemic ketamine for anesthesia and a stronger potency for analgesia in mice.