Peripheral nerve injury is common and frequently occurs in extremity trauma patients. The motor and sensory impairment caused by the injury will affect patients’ daily life and social work. Surgical therapeutic approaches don’t assure functional recovery, which may lead to neuronal atrophy and hinder accelerated regeneration. Rehabilitation is a necessary stage for patients to recover better. A meaningful role in non-pharmacological intervention is played by rehabilitation, through individualized electrical stimulation therapy. Clinical studies have shown that electrical stimulation enhances axon growth during nerve repair and accelerates sensorimotor recovery. According to different effects and parameters, electrical stimulation can be divided into neuromuscular, transcutaneous, and functional electrical stimulation. The therapeutic mechanism of electrical stimulation may be to reduce muscle atrophy and promote muscle reinnervation by increasing the expression of structural protective proteins and neurotrophic factors. Meanwhile, it can modulate sensory feedback and reduce neuralgia by inhibiting the descending pathway. However, there are not many summary clinical application parameters of electrical stimulation, and the long-term effectiveness and safety also need to be further explored. This article aims to explore application methodologies for effective electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve injury, with simultaneous consideration for fundamental principles of electrical stimulation and the latest technology. The highlight of this paper is to identify the most appropriate stimulation parameters (frequency, intensity, duration) to achieve efficacious electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve injury.