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Papers of the Week

Papers: 4 Feb 2023 - 10 Feb 2023

Basic Science

Animal Studies, Neuromodulation


2023 Feb 06

Mol Neurobiol


Electrical Stimulation of the Auricular Branch Vagus Nerve Using Random and Alternating Frequencies Triggers a Rapid Onset and Pronounced Antihyperalgesia via Peripheral Annexin A1-Formyl Peptide Receptor 2/ALX Pathway in a Mouse Model of Persistent Inflammatory Pain.


Salm DC, Horewicz VV, Tanaka F, Ferreira JK, de Oliveira BH, Maio JMB, Donatello NN, Ludtke DD, Mazzardo-Martins L, Dutra AR, Mack JM, de C H Kunzler D, Cargnin-Ferreira E, Salgado ASI, Bittencourt EB, Bianco G, Piovezan AP, Bobinski F, Moré AOO, Martins DF


This study evaluated the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of percutaneous vagus nerve electrical stimulation (pVNS) by comparing the effects of alternating and random frequencies in an animal model of persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia. The model was induced by Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) intraplantar (i.pl.) injection. Mice were treated with different protocols of time (10, 20, or 30 min), ear laterality (right, left or both), and frequency (alternating or random). Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated, and some groups received i.pl. WRW4 (FPR2/ALX antagonist) to determine the involvement. Edema, paw surface temperature, and spontaneous locomotor activity were evaluated. Interleukin-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL4 levels were verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AnxA1, FPR2/ALX, neutrophil, M1 and M2 phenotype macrophage, and apoptotic cells markers were identified using western blotting. The antihyperalgesic effect pVNS with alternating and random frequency effect is depending on the type of frequency, time, and ear treated. The pVNS random frequency in the left ear for 10 min had a longer lasting antihyperalgesic effect, superior to classical stimulation using alternating frequency and the FPR2/ALX receptor was involved in this effect. There was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the immunocontent of AnxA1 and CD86 in mice paw. pVNS with a random frequency in the left ear for 10 min showed to be optimal for inducing an antihyperalgesic effect. Thus, the random frequency was more effective than the alternating frequency. Therefore, pVNS may be an important adjunctive treatment for persistent inflammatory pain.