Inflammatory pain is a type of pain caused by tissue damage associated with inflammation and is characterized by hypersensitivity to pain and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. Neuroinflammation is significantly increased by various neurotransmitters and cytokines that are expressed in activated primary afferent neurons, and it plays a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory pain. The activation of microglia and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are the hallmark features of neuroinflammation. During the development of neuroinflammation, various intracellular signaling pathways are activated or inhibited in microglia, leading to the regulation of inflammatory proteins and cytokines. Numerous attempts have been conducted to alleviate inflammatory pain by inhibiting microglial activation. Natural products and their compounds have gained attention as potential candidates for suppressing inflammatory pain due to verified safety through centuries of use. Many studies have also shown that natural product-derived compounds have the potential to suppress microglial activation and alleviate inflammatory pain. Herein, we review the literature on inflammatory mediators and intracellular signaling involved in microglial activation in inflammatory pain, as well as natural product-derived compounds that have been found to suppress microglial activation. This review suggests that natural product-derived compounds have the potential to alleviate inflammatory pain through the suppression of microglial activation.