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Papers: 25 May 2024 - 31 May 2024

2024 May 17

Brain Sci




EEG Changes in Migraine-Can EEG Help to Monitor Attack Susceptibility?


van den Hoek TC, van de Ruit M, Terwindt GM, Tolner EA


Migraine is a highly prevalent brain condition with paroxysmal changes in brain excitability believed to contribute to the initiation of an attack. The attacks and their unpredictability have a major impact on the lives of patients. Clinical management is hampered by a lack of reliable predictors for upcoming attacks, which may help in understanding pathophysiological mechanisms to identify new treatment targets that may be positioned between the acute and preventive possibilities that are currently available. So far, a large range of studies using conventional hospital-based EEG recordings have provided contradictory results, with indications of both cortical hyper- as well as hypo-excitability. These heterogeneous findings may largely be because most studies were cross-sectional in design, providing only a snapshot in time of a patient’s brain state without capturing day-to-day fluctuations. The scope of this narrative review is to (i) reflect on current knowledge on EEG changes in the context of migraine, the attack cycle, and underlying pathophysiology; (ii) consider the effects of migraine treatment on EEG features; (iii) outline challenges and opportunities in using EEG for monitoring attack susceptibility; and (iv) discuss future applications of EEG in home-based settings.