The aim was to examine the moderator effect of duration of PNE (total minutes) and changes in psychosocial variables after treatment in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and CINHAL databases were systematically searched from inception to 6 February 2023. A mixed-effects meta-regression was performed to determine the moderator effect of PNE duration. Twenty-three studies involving 2,352 patients were included. Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant effect in favour of PNE on pain neurophysiology knowledge, anxiety symptoms, catastrophizing and kinesiophobia. The total duration of PNE ranged from 40 to 720minutes. A linear relationship was observed between longer duration of PNE (total minutes) and changes of psychosocial variables. In addition, a dose of 100, 200 and 400minutes of PNE was estimated to exceed the minimum clinically important difference described in the literature for kinesiophobia (mean difference = -8.53 points), anxiety symptoms (mean difference = -1.88 points) and catastrophizing (mean difference = -7.17 points). Clinicians should provide a more tailored PNE to address psychosocial variables.