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Papers: 23 Mar 2024 - 29 Mar 2024

2024 Mar 15





Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phenoxy Acetic Acid Derivatives as Selective COX-2 Inhibitors Coupled with Comprehensive Bio-Pharmacological Inquiry, Histopathological Profiling, and Toxicological Scrutiny.


Alshaye NA, Elgohary MK, Elkotamy MS, Abdel-Aziz HA


COX-2 plays a key role in converting arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. This makes it a significant target for treating inflammation. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have marked a new phase in inflammatory treatment, providing significant effectiveness while reducing negative side effects. Herein, we aimed at the design and synthesis of new anti-inflammatory agents -, -, -, and – with expected selective inhibition for COX-2. Compounds -, , and – showed significant COX-2 inhibition with IC in the range of 0.06-0.09 μM, indicating powerful pharmacological potential. In light of this, eight compounds were selected for further testing in vivo to assess their selectivity toward COX-1/COX-2 enzymes with the ability to reduce paw thickness. Compounds and showed significant anti-inflammatory effects without causing stomach ulcers, as they showed significant in vivo inhibition for paw thickness at 63.35% and 46.51%, as well as paw weight at 68.26% and 64.84%. Additionally, the tested compounds lowered TNF-α by 61.04% and 64.88%, as well as PGE-2 by 60.58% and 57.07%, respectively. Furthermore, these potent compounds were thoroughly analyzed for their pain-relieving effects, histological changes, and toxicological properties. Assessing renal and stomach function, as well as measuring liver enzymes AST and ALT, together with kidney indicators creatinine and urea, offered valuable information on their safety profiles. Molecular modeling studies explain the complex ways in which the strong interacts with the COX-2 enzyme. This comprehensive strategy emphasizes the therapeutic potential and safety profiling of these new analogues for managing inflammation.