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Papers of the Week

Papers: 18 May 2024 - 24 May 2024

2024 May 21

Int Urogynecol J


Cytokines in Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Review of the Literature.


Lemmon B, Kyrgiou M, Mullins E, Khullar V


Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is poorly understood with both the aetiology and pathophysiology being unknown. Symptoms overlap with other disorders, such as overactive bladder (OAB) and chronic pelvic pain disorders such as endometriosis, making a consensus on how to diagnosis and manage patients challenging. The development of biomarkers for BPS may be the key to understanding more about its pathophysiology, as well as aiding diagnosis, subclassification, and discovering new drug targets for its management. As inflammation is widely understood to hold a central role in BPS, the evaluation of cytokines has gained interest. This article summarises the current literature and understanding of urinary, serum, and bladder tissue cytokines found elevated in patients with bladder pain syndrome.