The chronic articular disease osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by osteophyte generation, subchondral bone remodeling, and cartilage deterioration. Low levels of H2S catalyzed by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) encoded by Cthhas neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects thus, Cth is being developed as a potential therapy for the management of the pathogenesis and symptoms of osteoarthritis. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and immunohistochemistry of human cartilage revealed that the expression of CTH was decreased in OA patients. We found that Cthoverexpression decrease IL-1β-induced overactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In vivo, Cthoverexpression relieved pain response and cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rat model. In vitro, CSE alleviated chondrocytes catabolism, inflammation, apoptosis, and senescence, and suppressed the NF-κB pathway. We postulate that CSE has therapeutic effects in suppressing inflammation and degeneration in OA and should be further investigated clinically.