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Papers of the Week

Papers: 23 Dec 2023 - 29 Dec 2023

2023 Dec 22

Mol Neurobiol


Current Update on Categorization of Migraine Subtypes on the Basis of Genetic Variation: a Systematic Review.


Goel K, Chhetri A, Ludhiadch A, Munshi A


Migraine is a complex neurovascular disorder that is characterized by severe behavioral, sensory, visual, and/or auditory symptoms. It has been labeled as one of the ten most disabling medical illnesses in the world by the World Health Organization (Aagaard et al Sci Transl Med 6(237):237ra65, 2014). According to a recent report by the American Migraine Foundation (Shoulson et al Ann Neurol 25(3):252-9, 1989), around 148 million people in the world currently suffer from migraine. On the basis of presence of aura, migraine is classified into two major subtypes: migraine with aura (Aagaard et al Sci Transl Med 6(237):237ra65, 2014) and migraine without aura. (Aagaard K et al Sci Transl Med 6(237):237ra65, 2014) Many complex genetic mechanisms have been proposed in the pathophysiology of migraine but specific pathways associated with the different subtypes of migraine have not yet been explored. Various approaches including candidate gene association studies (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (Fan et al Headache: J Head Face Pain 54(4):709-715, 2014). have identified the genetic markers associated with migraine and its subtypes. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (Kaur et al Egyp J Neurol, Psychiatry Neurosurg 55(1):1-7, 2019) within genes involved in ion homeostasis, solute transport, synaptic transmission, cortical excitability, and vascular function have been associated with the disorder. Currently, the diagnosis of migraine is majorly behavioral with no focus on the genetic markers and thereby the therapeutic intervention specific to subtypes. Therefore, there is a need to explore genetic variants significantly associated with MA and MO as susceptibility markers in the diagnosis and targets for therapeutic interventions in the specific subtypes of migraine. Although the proper characterization of pathways based on different subtypes is yet to be studied, this review aims to make a first attempt to compile the information available on various genetic variants and the molecular mechanisms involved with the development of MA and MO. An attempt has also been made to suggest novel candidate genes based on their function to be explored by future research.