I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

Papers: 22 Jul 2023 - 28 Jul 2023

Animal Studies, Molecular/Cellular, Neurobiology, Neuromodulation

Inflammation/Inflammatory, Neuropathic Pain

2023 Jul 24

Mol Pain


Conventional, High Frequency and Differential Targeted Multiplexed Spinal Cord Stimulation in experimental Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: pain behavior and role of the central inflammatory balance.


Geus TJ, Franken G, Bert Joosten B


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a last resort treatment for pain relief in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) patients. However, the effectivity of SCS in PDPN is limited. New SCS paradigms such as high frequency (HF) and differential target multiplexed (DTM) might improve responder rates and efficacy of SCS-induced analgesia in PDPN patients, and are suggested to modulate the inflammatory balance and glial response in the spinal dorsal horn. The aim of this study was to research the effects of Con-, HF- and DTM-SCS on pain behavior and the spinal inflammatory balance in an animal model of PDPN. Streptozotocin-induced PDPN animals were stimulated for 48 hours with either Con-SCS (50Hz), HF-SCS (1200Hz) or DTM-SCS (combination of Con- and HF-SCS). Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed using Von Frey (VF) test and the motivational aspects of pain were assessed using the mechanical conflict avoidance system (MCAS). The inflammatory balance and glial response were analyzed in the dorsal spinal cord based on RNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (Tnf-α, Il-1ß, Il-4, Il-10), a microglia marker (Itgam), an astrocyte marker (Gfap), a T-cell marker (Cd3d), microglia proliferation markers (Irf8, Adgre1) and P2X4, p13-MAPK, BDNF signaling markers (P2x4, Mapk14, Bdnf). The results show that Con-, HF-, and DTM-SCS significantly decreased hypersensitivity after 48 hours of stimulation compared to Sham-SCS in PDPN animals, but at the same time did not affect escape latency in the MCAS. At the molecular level, Con-SCS resulted in a significant increase in spinal pro-inflammatory cytokine Tnf-α after 48 hours compared to DTM-SCS and Sham-SCS. In summary, Con-SCS showed a shift of the inflammatory balance towards a pro-inflammatory state whilst HF- and DTM-SCS shifted the balance towards an anti-inflammatory state. These findings suggest that the underlying mechanism of Con-SCS induced pain relief in PDPN differs from that induced by HF- and DTM-SCS.