I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

Papers: 4 Nov 2023 - 10 Nov 2023

2023 Nov 07

Behav Pharmacol


Contribution of the intra-hippocampal orexin system in the regulation of restraint stress response to pain-related behaviors in the formalin test.


Sadeghi M, Zareie F, Gholami M, Nazari-Serenjeh F, Ghalandari-Shamami M, Haghparast A


Stress-induced antinociception (SIA) is due to the activation of several neural pathways and neurotransmitters that often suppress pain perception. Studies have shown that the orexin neuropeptide system is essential in pain modulation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of orexinergic receptors in the hippocampal CA1 region in modulating SIA response during the formalin test as an animal model of inflammatory pain. The orexin-1 receptor (OX1r) antagonist, SB334867, at 1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol or TCS OX2 29 as an orexin-2 receptor (OX2r) antagonist at the same doses were microinjected into the CA1 region in rats. Five minutes later, rats were exposed to restraint stress (RS) for 3 h, and pain-related behaviors were monitored in 5-min blocks for the 60-min test period in the formalin test. Results showed that applying RS for 3 h reduced pain responses in the early and late phases of the formalin test. The main findings showed that intra-CA1 injection of orexin receptor antagonists reduced the antinociception caused by stress in both phases of the formalin test. In addition, the contribution of OX2r in mediating the antinociceptive effect of stress was more prominent than that of OX1r in the early phase of the formalin test. However, in the late phase, both receptors worked similarly. Accordingly, the orexin system and its two receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus regulate SIA response to this animal model of pain in formalin test.