Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is defined as urologic pain or discomfort in the pelvic region, associated with urinary symptoms and/or sexual dysfunction, lasting for at least 3 of the previous 6 months. The rate of symptoms related to prostatitis has a mean prevalence of 8-8.2%. CP/CPPS is most frequent in men younger than 50 years, among whom it is the most common urologic diagnosis. In the last decades, many studies have been published on CP/CPPS and its association with male infertility. The pathophysiologic relation between CP/CPPS and male infertility involves several aspects, which are not well studied yet. A reduction in semen parameters has been demonstrated in patients with CP/CPPS, and several mechanisms have been proposed to represent putative pathophysiological links between CP/CPPS and infertility, including male accessory gland inflammation, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, HPV co-infection and autoimmunity. In light of this evidence, a multidisciplinary approach is advocated for patients with known CP/CPPS, and particular attention is needed for male patients of infertile couples in order to evaluate male accessory glands correctly. In addition, it is advisable that future studies dealing with the treatment of CP/CPPS take into consideration all the different pathophysiological aspects implicated.