Chronic pain affects many people world-wide, and this number is continuously increasing. There is a clear link between chronic pain and the development of cardiovascular disease through activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence from the literature that highlights the direct relationship between sympathetic nervous system dysfunction and chronic pain. We hypothesize that maladaptive changes within a common neural network regulating the sympathetic nervous system and pain perception contribute to sympathetic overactivation and cardiovascular disease in the setting of chronic pain. We review clinical evidence and highlight the basic neurocircuitry linking the sympathetic and nociceptive networks and the overlap between the neural networks controlling the two.