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Papers of the Week

Papers: 20 Jan 2024 - 26 Jan 2024

2024 Jan 17

Int J Pharm


Chondroitin sulfate and caseinophosphopeptides doped polyurethane-based highly porous 3D scaffolds for tendon-to-bone regeneration.


Bianchi E, Ruggeri M, Del Favero E, Pisano R, Artusio F, Ricci C, Vigani B, Ferraretto A, Boselli C, Icaro Cornaglia A, Rossi S, Sandri G


Tendon disorders are common injuries, which can be greatly debilitating as they are often accompanied by great pain and inflammation. Moreover, several problems are also related to the laceration of the tendon-to-bone interface (TBI), a specific region subjected to great mechanical stresses. The techniques used nowadays for the treatment of tendon and TBI injuries often involve surgery. However, one critical aspect of this procedure involves the elevated risk of fail due to the tissues weakening and the postoperative alterations of the normal joint mechanics. Synthetic polymers, such as thermoplastic polyurethane, are of special interest in the tissue engineering field as they allow the production of scaffolds with tunable elastic and mechanical properties, that could guarantee an effective support during the new tissue formation. Based on these premises, the aim of this work was the design and the development of highly porous 3D scaffolds based on thermoplastic polyurethane, and doped with chondroitin sulfate and caseinophosphopeptides, able to mimic the structural, biomechanical, and biochemical functions of the TBI. The obtained scaffolds were characterized by a homogeneous microporous structure, and by a porosity optimal for cell nutrition and migration. They were also characterized by remarkable mechanical properties, reaching values comparable to the ones of the native tendons. The scaffolds promoted the tenocyte adhesion and proliferation when caseinophosphopetides and chondroitin sulfate are present in the 3D structure. In particular, caseinophosphopeptides’ optimal concentration for cell proliferation resulted 2.4 mg/mL. Finally, the systems evaluation in vivo demonstrated the scaffolds’ safety, since they did not cause any inflammatory effect nor foreign body response, representing interesting platforms for the regeneration of injured TBI.