Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent degenerative disease accompanied by the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems-associated inflammatory responses. Due to the local inflammation, the expression of various cytokines was altered in affected joints, including CC motif chemokine ligands (CCLs) and their receptors (CCRs). As essential members of chemokines, CCLs and CCRs played an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of OA. The bindings between CCLs and CCRs on the chondrocyte membrane promoted chondrocyte apoptosis and the release of multiple matrix-degrading enzymes, which resulted in cartilage degradation. In addition, CCLs and CCRs had chemoattractant functions to attract various immune cells to osteoarthritic joints, further leading to the aggravation of local inflammation. Furthermore, in the nerve endings of joints, CCLs and CCRs, along with several cellular factors, contributed to pain hypersensitivity by releasing neurotransmitters in the spinal cord. Given this family’s diverse and complex functions, targeting the functional network of CCLs and CCRs is a promising strategy for the prognosis and treatment of OA in the future.