Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a rising public health crisis, impacting millions of individuals and families worldwide. Anesthesiologists can play a key role in improving morbidity and mortality around the time of surgery by informing perioperative teams and guiding evidence-based care and access to life-saving treatment for patients with active OUD or in recovery. This article serves as an educational resource for the anesthesiologist caring for patients with OUD and is the second in a series of articles published in Anesthesia & Analgesia on the anesthetic and analgesic management of patients with substance use disorders. The article is divided into 4 sections: (1) background to OUD, treatment principles, and the anesthesiologist; (2) perioperative considerations for patients prescribed medications for OUD (MOUD); (3) perioperative considerations for patients with active, untreated OUD; and (4) nonopioid and nonpharmacologic principles of multimodal perioperative pain management for patients with untreated, active OUD, or in recovery. The article concludes with a stepwise approach for the anesthesiologist to support OUD treatment and recovery. The anesthesiologist is an important leader of the perioperative team to promote these suggested best practices and help save lives.