As a typical chronic inflammatory joint disease with swelling and pain syndromes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is closely related to articular lubrication deficiency and excessive proinflammatory cytokines in its progression and pathogenesis. Herein, inspired by the dual effects of joint lubrication improvement and anti-inflammation to treat RA, two novel potential therapeutic nanoagents have been developed rationally by employing herbal medicine-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs), i.e., safflower ( L.) CQDs and CQDs, yielding ultrahigh lubrication and anti-inflammation bioefficacy. In vitro experimental results show that the two nanoagents display excellent friction reduction due to their good water solubility and spherical structure. Using RA rat models, it is indicated that the nanoagents significantly relieved swelling symptoms and inhibited the expression of related inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, indicating their extraordinary anti-inflammation bioefficacy. Thus, combining the lubricating and anti-inflammation bioefficacy of CQDs derived from herbal medicine is an attractive strategy to develop new nanoagents for RA treatment.