In cancer patients, chronic paclitaxel (PTX) treatment causes excruciating pain, limiting its use in cancer chemotherapy. The neuroprotective potential of synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) and CBD formulated in extracellular vesicles (CBD-EVs) isolated from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells was investigated in C57BL/6J mice with PTX-induced neuropathic pain (PIPN). The particle size of EVs and CBD-EVs, surface roughness, nanomechanical properties, stability, and release studies were all investigated. To develop neuropathy in mice, PTX (8 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered every other day (four doses). In terms of decreasing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, CBD-EVs treatment was superior to EVs treatment or CBD treatment alone ( < 0.001). CBD and CBD-EVs significantly reduced mitochondrial dysfunction in dorsal root ganglions and spinal homogenates of PTX-treated animals by modulating the AMPK pathway ( < 0.001). Studies inhibiting the AMPK and 5HT1A receptors found that CBD did not influence the neurobehavioral or mitochondrial function of PIPN. Based on these results, we hypothesize that CBD and CBD-EVs mitigated PIPN by modulating AMPK and mitochondrial function.