Ketamine is an effective antidepressant, but there is substantial variability in patient response and the precise mechanism of action is unclear. Neuroimaging can provide predictive and mechanistic insights, but findings are limited by small sample sizes. This systematic review covers neuroimaging studies investigating baseline (pre-treatment) and longitudinal (post-treatment) biomarkers of responses to ketamine. All modalities were included. We performed searches of five electronic databases (from inception to April 26, 2022). 69 studies were included (with 1751 participants). There was substantial methodological heterogeneity and no well replicated biomarker. However, we found convergence across some significant results, particularly in longitudinal biomarkers. Response to ketamine was associated with post-treatment increases in gamma power in frontoparietal regions in electrophysiological studies, post-treatment increases in functional connectivity within the prefrontal cortex, and post-treatment increases in the functional activation of the striatum. Although a well replicated neuroimaging biomarker of ketamine response was not identified, there are biomarkers that warrant further investigation.