Posterolateral spinal fusion is the standard surgical approach for patients with degenerative disc disease. In our previously published article, we reported a 5-years follow-up of a phase I/II clinical trial in patients undergoing spinal fusion with autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded in tricalcium phosphate. In the current manuscript, we have updated the results with a 10-year follow-up, the longest reported to date in this setting. After clinical and radiological evaluation, safety of the procedure was further confirmed in all 11 treated patients, with no evidence of tumor, infection, inflammatory reaction, or heterotopic ossification related to the administration of MSCs. Regarding clinical efficacy, low back pain and radicular pain (both assessed by the visual analogue scale-VAS), and the Owestry Disability Index remained significantly lower compared to pre-intervention. Radiologic evaluation demonstrated spinal fusion in all cases, improving over time. Finally, quality of life improved significantly also during follow-up. In summary, the use of tricalcium phosphate-embedded autologous MSCs with lumbar posterolateral arthrodesis is safe and potentially provides long-term benefits for 10 years.