The growing opioid use and overdose crisis in the US is closely related to the abuse of pain medications. Particularly for postoperative pain (POP), ~ 310 million major surgeries are performed globally per year. Most patients undergoing surgical procedures experience acute POP, and ~ 75% of those with POP report the severity as moderate, severe, or extreme. Opioid analgesics are the mainstay for POP management. It is highly desirable to develop a truly effective and safe non-opioid analgesic to treat POP and other forms of pain. Notably, microsomal prostaglandin E2 (PGE) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) was once proposed as a potentially promising target for a next generation of anti-inflammatory drugs based on studies in mPGES-1 knockouts. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have ever been reported to explore whether mPGES-1 is also a potential target for POP treatment. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a highly selective mPGES-1 inhibitor can effectively relieve POP as well as other forms of pain through blocking the PGE overproduction. All the data have consistently demonstrated that mPGES-1 is a truly promising target for treatment of POP as well as other forms of pain.