Pain represents an international burden and a major socio-economic public health problem. New findings, detailed in this review, suggest that adenosine plays a significant role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain, by acting on its metabotropic adenosine receptors (AAR, AAR, AAR, AAR). Adenosine receptor ligands have a practical translational potential based on the favorable efficacy and safety profiles that emerged from clinical research on various agonists and antagonists for different pathologies. The present review collects the latest studies on selected adenosine receptor ligands in different pain models. Here, we also covered the many hypothesized pathways and the role of newly synthesized allosteric adenosine receptor modulators. This review aims to present a summary of recent research on adenosine receptors as prospective therapeutic targets for a range of pain-related disorders.