Activation of neurons and glial cells in the dorsal root ganglion is one of the key mechanisms for the development of hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of neuroglial activity in the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Male rats were treated with morphine daily for 3 days. The resultant phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the dorsal root ganglion was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Pain hypersensitivity was analyzed using behavioral studies. The amount of cytokine expression in the dorsal root ganglion was also analyzed. Repeated morphine treatment induced hyperalgesia and marked induction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the neurons and satellite glial cells on day 3. An opioid receptor antagonist, toll like receptor-4 inhibitor, MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor and gap junction inhibitor inhibited morphine-induced hyperalgesia and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Morphine treatment induced alteration of cytokine expression, which was inhibited by the opioid receptor antagonist, toll like receptor-4 inhibitor, MEK inhibitor and gap junction inhibitor. Dexamethasone inhibited morphine-induced hyperalgesia and ERK1/2 phosphorylation after morphine treatment. The peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonist, methylnaltrexone, inhibited hyperalgesia and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Morphine activates ERK1/2 in neurons and satellite glial cells in the dorsal root ganglion via the opioid receptor and toll like receptor-4. ERK1/2 phosphorylation is gap junction-dependent and is associated with the alteration of cytokine expression. Inhibition of neuroinflammation by activation of neurons and glia might be a promising target to prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia.