Nervous system damage affects more than a billion people worldwide and is one of the leading causes of cognitive impairment. An urgent issue in modern medicine is the neurorehabilitation of this particular group of patients. The purpose of this article is to search for new approaches to achieve more effective recovery of cognitive functions, precisely by using virtual reality technology as a promising direction in neurorehabilitation. It has been shown that neurobiological effects of virtual reality have a positive effect on the plasticity of neurons, improve cognitive functions and positively affect the psychoemotional state. A case of the positive impact of being in the virtual environment «Outer Space» in a female patient with cognitive impairment and chronic pain is presented.