Few studies are conducted on the efficacy of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in spinal cord injury (SCI) management and electrophysiological changes in the spinal cord. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of ADSCs on neuropathic pain, motor function recovery, and electrophysiology assessment. For the purpose of this study, adult male Wistar rats (weight: 140-160 gr, n = 42) were randomly allocated into five groups namely intact animals, sham-operated, SCI non-treated animals, vehicle-treated (culture media), and ADSCs treated groups. One week after clips compression SCI induction, about 1×10 cells were transplanted into the spinal cord. As well, both neuropathic pain (allodynia and hyperalgesia) and motor function were measured weekly. Cavity size, ADSCs survival, and electrophysiology assessments were measured at the end of the eighth week. The transplantation of ADSCs resulted in a significant improvement in the locomotion of SCI animals (p<0.0001), mechanical allodynia (p<0.0001), cold allodynia (p<0.0001), mechanical hyperalgesia (p<0.0001), and thermal hyperalgesia (p<0.0001). The cavity size was significantly smaller among the ADSCs-treated animals (p <0.0001). The single-unit recording showed that the transplantation of ADSCs decreased wide dynamic range (WDR) in neurons and it evoked potential in response to receiving signals from Aβ (p<0.0001) and Aδ (p=0.003) C-fiber (p<0.0001) neurons. Post-discharge recorded from WDR neurons decreased after the transplantation of ADSCs (p<0.0001) and wind up in the ADSCs-treated group was lower than that of the SCI group (p=0.003). Our results showed that the transplantation of ADSCs could significantly alleviate neuropathic pain, enhance motor function recovery, and improve electrophysiology findings after SCI.