Hand surgery patients often experience chronic pain conditions. However, there are few reliable ways to measure pain, making diagnosis and subsequent management of these conditions notably challenging for the hand surgeon. Various diagnostic biomarkers have been actively studied in the chronic pain management field with promising results. This review discusses the development of diagnostic biomarkers for chronic pain conditions of the upper extremity, including complex regional pain syndrome, osteoarthritis, and neuropathic pain. Techniques involving the measurements of heart rate variability, molecular biomarkers including inflammatory and noninflammatory molecules, metabolites, and exosomes, magnetic resonance imagining and electroencephalography, as well as skin biopsy, are discussed. Future potential applications are proposed.