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2023 Jan 25

Hormones (Athens)

Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region: a systematic review.


Guerrero-Pérez F, Marengo A P, Vilarrasa N, Vidal N, Ruiz-Roig N, Sánchez-Fernández J J, Torres-Díaz A, Sanmillán J L, Pérez-Maraver M, Villabona C
Hormones (Athens). 2023 Jan 25.
PMID: 36695986.


Knowledge of xanthogranuloma (XG) of the sellar region comes from short series or single cases. We performed a systematic review, using the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, eLibrary, and BIOSIS Preview databases, of all cases reported from 2000 to the present. We also describe one unreported patient treated in our institution. A search of the literature revealed that of 71 patients 50.7% were male and that mean age at diagnosis was 34.7 ± 19.2 years old. Median time from clinical onset until diagnosis was 7 (3-21) months. Hypopituitarism (70.4%), visual disorders (64.7%), headache (53.5%), and polyuria-polydipsia (28.2%) were the most common symptoms. On MRI, median tumor size was 20 (16-29) mm, while 71.8% were sellar/suprasellar and less frequently exclusively suprasellar (15.5%) or sellar (12.7%). On T1-weighted imaging, XG was hyperintense in 76.3% of patients, while it showed variable appearance on T2-weighted imaging. The tumor showed cystic features in 50.7%, gadolinium enhancement in 45.1%, and calcification in 22.5% of patients. All patients underwent surgery (77.4% transphenoidal approach and 18.3% craniotomy), with hypopituitarism (56.4%), diabetes insipidus (34.5%), and visual defects (7.3%) being the most common complications. Total/subtotal resection was achieved in 93.5%, while the tumor was partially removed in 6.6%. Median follow-up was 24 (6-55) months and no tumor recurrence or remnant growth was reported in 97.5% of cases. In conclusion, XG affects the younger population, manifested by hormonal deficit and mass effect symptoms. Surgery is safe and offers excellent outcomes, though hypopituitarism is frequent post-surgery. Tumor recurrence or remnant growth is rare and radiological surveillance is a good option for patients with remnant lesions.