Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing idiopathic inflammatory conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract. They are mainly represented by two forms, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD can be associated with the activation of nuclear factors, such as nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), leading to increased transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators that result in diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding, and many extra-intestinal manifestations. Phytochemicals can interfere with many inflammation targets, including NF-kB pathways. Thus, this review aimed to investigate the effects of different phytochemicals in the NF-kB pathways in vitro and in vivo models of IBD. Fifty-six phytochemicals were included in this study, such as curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol, sesamol, pinocembrin, astragalin, oxyberberine, berberine hydrochloride, botulin, taxifolin, naringin, thymol, isobavachalcone, lancemaside A, aesculin, tetrandrine, Ginsenoside Rk3, mangiferin, diosgenin, theanine, tryptanthrin, lycopene, gyngerol, alantolactone, mangostin, ophiopogonin D, fisetin, sinomenine, piperine, oxymatrine, euphol, artesunate, galangin, and nobiletin. The main observed effects related to NF-kB pathways were reductions in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and augmented occludin, claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, and IL-10 expression levels. Moreover, phytochemicals can improve weight loss, stool consistency, and rectal bleeding in IBD. Therefore, phytochemicals can constitute a powerful treatment option for IBD in humans.