Synovial inflammation plays a central role in joint destruction and pain in osteoarthritis (OA). The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in the inflammatory process and is activated in OA. A previous study reported that a jietacin derivative (JD), ()-2-(8-oxodec-9-yn-1-yl)-1-vinyldiazene 1-oxide, suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in a range of cancer cell lines. However, the effect of JD in synovial cells and the exact mechanism of JD as an NF-κB inhibitor remain to be determined. We investigated the effect of JD on TNF-α-induced inflammatory reaction in a synovial cell line, SW982 and human primary synovial fibroblasts (hPSFs). Additionally, we examined phosphorylated levels of p65 and p38 and expression of importin α3 and β1 using Western blotting. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that JD suppressed TNF-α-induced differential expression: among 204 genes significantly differentially expressed between vehicle and TNF-α-stimulated SW982 (183 upregulated and 21 downregulated) (FC ≥ 2, Q < 0.05), expression of 130 upregulated genes, including inflammatory cytokines (, , , ) and chemokines (, , , , , 10, 11), was decreased by JD treatment and that of 14 downregulated genes was increased. KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs were increased in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, TNF signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, and rheumatoid arthritis. JD inhibited , and mRNA expression and IL-6 and IL-8 protein production in both SW982 and hPSFs. JD also suppressed p65 phosphorylation in both SW982 and hPSFs. In contrast, JD did not alter p38 phosphorylation. JD may inhibit TNF-α-mediated inflammatory cytokine production via suppression of p65 phosphorylation in both SW982 and hPSFs. Our results suggest that JD may have therapeutic potential for OA due to its anti-inflammatory action through selective suppression of the NF-κB pathway on synovial cells.