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Papers of the Week

2022 Dec




Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Case Report.


Silva J M, Gomes Cochicho J, Carvalho E, Parente A R, Cruz Nodarse A, Pádua F
Cureus. 2022 Dec; 14(12):e32539.
PMID: 36654635.


Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a serious complication of group A infection with a high mortality rate. Rapid detection, early intensive care support, and surgical management are paramount in treating these patients. We present a case of a 65-year-old male, with a documented medical history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and peripheral arterial disease. The patient was evaluated in the emergency department with a chief complaint of pain, swelling in his left leg, and fever. Physical examination showed tachycardia, hypotension, and clear inflammatory signs in the left leg. After initial clinical and laboratory evaluation, the patient was admitted with a diagnosis of cellulitis and urinary tract infection. He presented progressive worsening with multi-organ dysfunction, requiring vasopressor support, invasive mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. was isolated in blood cultures, and a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was considered. Appropriate antibiotic therapy, immunoglobulins, hemoperfusion, and corticosteroid therapy were administered, with clinical improvement. During hospitalization, there was a progressive improvement in the skin lesion. Once clinically stabilized the patient was discharged with follow-up. The case presented shows the rapid evolution of cutaneous streptococcal infection with multiorgan dysfunction. Although these types of infections have an associated high mortality rate, this patient survived. The use of immunoglobulin and hemoperfusion technique, in this case, might have contributed to this positive outcome. Therefore, we highlight the need for high suspicion of this syndrome, especially in diabetic patients presenting with skin lesions. Once the diagnosis is established, these infections require close surveillance and rapid and intensive treatment.